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History of Taiwan
Taiwan is an integral part of China, which belonged to China since ancient times. 1700 years ago, Chinese went to Taiwan to open land. From the end of 17th century to 1893, around 2.5 million people from mainland of China moved to Taiwan. Chinese government of different periods set up administrative bodies to exercise jurisdiction over Taiwan. As early as in the mid-12th century the Song Dynasty set up a garrison in Penghu, putting the territory under the jurisdiction of Jingjiang County of Fujia’s Quanzhou Prefecture. The Yuan Dynasty set up an agency of patrol and inspection in Penghu to administer the territory of Taiwan. In the Ming Dynasty, the government sent troops to Penghu to ward off the foreign invaders. In the Qing Dynasty, the government even formally made Taiwan a full province covering three prefectures. Liu Ming chuan was appointed the first governor. In 1624, Dutch colonialists invaded and occupied the southern part of Taiwan. Two years later Spanish occupied the north part of Taiwan. In 1661 General Zheng Chenggong led an expedition to Taiwan and expelled the Dutch colonialists in the following year. In 1894, the sea war breaking out between Japan and China, China was defeated by Japan and signed the Shimonoseki Treaty to cede Taiwan to Japan. After World War 2 was finished, Japan returned Taiwan and Penghu back to China. They were incorporated formally into the territory of China again.
What is the Taiwan question?
The civil war broke out again between Chinese Communist Party and Kuomintang and the latter was supported by American government but failed and retreated to Taiwan. Against the backdrop of East-west confrontation in 1950s, guided by American global strategy and national interest, Americans supported Kuomintang and carried out the policy of isolation and containment of New China. On 27th 1950 President Truman announced: “I have ordered the seventh Fleet to prevent any attack on Taiwan”. Thus the seventh Fleet invaded the Taiwan Straits and the U.S. 13th Air Force set up military base in Taiwan. In December 1954, the U.S. concluded with Taiwan authorities a so-called mutual defense treaty and placing China’s Taiwan under her “protection”.
In order to ease the tension in Taiwan Strait area and seek ways of solving the dispute between the two countries, so many dialogues at ambassadorial level had been held between America and China, but there was no progress achieved until 1971 when china’s lawful rights in UN were restored and representatives of Taiwan authorities were expelled. In 1972, Richard Nixon visited China and the two countries issued a joint Communiqué in Shanghai stating that the united states acknowledge that all Chinese on either side of the Taiwan strait maintain there is but one china and that Taiwan is one part of China. The U.S. government does not challenge that position.
In December 1978 the U.S. Government accepted the three principles proposed by the Chinese Government for the establishment of diplomatic relations between the two countries, namely the U.S. should sever diplomatic relations, abrogate the mutual defense treaty with Taiwan authorities and withdraw U.S. military forces from Taiwan. On 1st January 1979, China and the U.S. established the diplomatic relations. The Communiqué said again that the U.S. recognized the government of the people’s republic of China as the sole legal government of China. Within this context the people of U.S. will maintain cultural, commercial and other unofficial relations with the people of Taiwan…..the U.S. acknowledges the Chinese position that there is but one China and Taiwan is part of China.” Normalization of Sino-U.S. relations was thus achieved.
But latter a so-called Taiwan Relations Act was passed by the U.S. Congress and signed by the President. That really contravened the Communiqué and against the international law. The U.S government has continued its arms sales to Taiwan, interference in China’s internal affairs and obstruction to Taiwan’s reunification with the mainland.
The Chinese government’s basic position regarding settlement of the Taiwan question
Peaceful reunification, one country two systems was the basic policy and an important component of the theory of Chinese central government. The Taiwan question will be settled in peaceful negotiations and after Taiwan’s reunification with the mainland of China, it will enjoy a high degree of autonomy. The example of Hang Kong and Macau has offered the experiences to settle the question of Taiwan. During these years, the clamors for “Taiwan independence” or “dual recognition” and “two Chinas” have become shriller. That really has added stumbling blocks in the way for Taiwan’s reunification with the mainland. So the Chinese government will not give up the method to settle the Taiwan Question by force because Taiwan is one integral part of China and it will not be separated from the motherland.

The Cultural Revolution
Taiwan Question
China's Family Planning Policy
Tibetan Buddhism
The Four Great Beauties of Ancient China

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