History of Taiwan
Taiwan is an integral part of China, which belonged to China since
ancient times. 1700 years ago, Chinese went to Taiwan to open land.
From the end of 17th century to 1893, around 2.5 million people
from mainland of China moved to Taiwan. Chinese government of different
periods set up administrative bodies to exercise jurisdiction over
Taiwan. As early as in the mid-12th century the Song Dynasty set
up a garrison in Penghu, putting the territory under the jurisdiction
of Jingjiang County of Fujia’s Quanzhou Prefecture. The Yuan Dynasty
set up an agency of patrol and inspection in Penghu to administer
the territory of Taiwan. In the Ming Dynasty, the government sent
troops to Penghu to ward off the foreign invaders. In the Qing Dynasty,
the government even formally made Taiwan a full province covering
three prefectures. Liu Ming chuan was appointed the first governor.
In 1624, Dutch colonialists invaded and occupied the southern part
of Taiwan. Two years later Spanish occupied the north part of Taiwan.
In 1661 General Zheng Chenggong led an expedition to Taiwan and
expelled the Dutch colonialists in the following year. In 1894,
the sea war breaking out between Japan and China, China was defeated
by Japan and signed the Shimonoseki Treaty to cede Taiwan to Japan.
After World War 2 was finished, Japan returned Taiwan and Penghu
back to China. They were incorporated formally into the territory
of China again.
What is the Taiwan question?
The civil war broke out again between Chinese Communist Party and
Kuomintang and the latter was supported by American government but
failed and retreated to Taiwan. Against the backdrop of East-west
confrontation in 1950s, guided by American global strategy and national
interest, Americans supported Kuomintang and carried out the policy
of isolation and containment of New China. On 27th 1950 President
Truman announced: “I have ordered the seventh Fleet to prevent any
attack on Taiwan”. Thus the seventh Fleet invaded the Taiwan Straits
and the U.S. 13th Air Force set up military base in Taiwan. In December
1954, the U.S. concluded with Taiwan authorities a so-called mutual
defense treaty and placing China’s Taiwan under her “protection”.
In order to ease the tension in Taiwan Strait area and seek ways
of solving the dispute between the two countries, so many dialogues
at ambassadorial level had been held between America and China,
but there was no progress achieved until 1971 when china’s lawful
rights in UN were restored and representatives of Taiwan authorities
were expelled. In 1972, Richard Nixon visited China and the two
countries issued a joint Communiqué in Shanghai stating that the
united states acknowledge that all Chinese on either side of the
Taiwan strait maintain there is but one china and that Taiwan is
one part of China. The U.S. government does not challenge that position.
In December 1978 the U.S. Government accepted the three principles
proposed by the Chinese Government for the establishment of diplomatic
relations between the two countries, namely the U.S. should sever
diplomatic relations, abrogate the mutual defense treaty with Taiwan
authorities and withdraw U.S. military forces from Taiwan. On 1st
January 1979, China and the U.S. established the diplomatic relations.
The Communiqué said again that the U.S. recognized the government
of the people’s republic of China as the sole legal government of
China. Within this context the people of U.S. will maintain cultural,
commercial and other unofficial relations with the people of Taiwan…..the
U.S. acknowledges the Chinese position that there is but one China
and Taiwan is part of China.” Normalization of Sino-U.S. relations
was thus achieved.
But latter a so-called Taiwan Relations Act was passed by the U.S.
Congress and signed by the President. That really contravened the
Communiqué and against the international law. The U.S government
has continued its arms sales to Taiwan, interference in China’s
internal affairs and obstruction to Taiwan’s reunification with
The Chinese government’s basic position regarding settlement of
the Taiwan question
Peaceful reunification, one country two systems was the basic policy
and an important component of the theory of Chinese central government.
The Taiwan question will be settled in peaceful negotiations and
after Taiwan’s reunification with the mainland of China, it will
enjoy a high degree of autonomy. The example of Hang Kong and Macau
has offered the experiences to settle the question of Taiwan. During
these years, the clamors for “Taiwan independence” or “dual recognition”
and “two Chinas” have become shriller. That really has added stumbling
blocks in the way for Taiwan’s reunification with the mainland.
So the Chinese government will not give up the method to settle
the Taiwan Question by force because Taiwan is one integral part
of China and it will not be separated from the motherland.