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The Cultural Revolution was a radical political movement, taking place in China (between 1966 and 1976). In the 1960s, Mao believed that the socialist society of China would experience a long time during which the class struggling would exist and it was very possible and dangerous that the capitalism would restore in China. Guided by the theory of “continuous revolution under the proletarian dictatorship”, Mao initiated the Cultural Revolution. But it was utilized by Linbiao and the Gang of Four Bloc and it was carried out mainly by the Red Guards. The Cultural Revolution was intended to eliminate counterrevolutionary elements in the government; unfortunately it resulted in the social and economic chaos (civil strife) in China. During the Cultural Revolution, Mao organized China's urban youths into groups who were called the Red Guards. Mao shut down China's schools, and encouraged the Red Guards to attack all traditional values and “bourgeois things.” The Red Guards soon split into zealous rival groups who even fought against each other for power. In 1968 Mao sent millions of them to the rural hinterland that was called “up to the mountain and down to the village” movement. During that time a lot of party members, government officials and intellectuals were purged, were verbally attacked, physically abused and even persecuted to death. Some were sent out to work in the farms or the factories. Some of them were imprisoned. For a time, the zealous Red Guards had considerable power. They ransacked homes, deliberately destroyed artworks and architectural treasures. During the Cultural Revolution Mao’s cult of personality reached its highest stage. Mao’s utterance known as the Red Book was widely published and sent to every people’s hand. Mao really made serious mistakes and who should be culpable. But he was still a great person who should be respected by Chinese.

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